(While this book is not specifically about Alfred Hitchcock, he is a significant figure in it, so I decided to include it here.)
Say the name Tippi Hedren to a film buff, and his or her first thought will likely be of Hitchcock’s The Birds. After all, it is Tippi’s most iconic role. After reading Tippi’s memoir, I now associate her with Hitchcock for very different reasons. But more importantly, I know that her interactions with Hitchcock were one small chapter in a much greater, and more fascinating life.
Tippi begins the book with her early life, growing up in a small Minnesota town. When she was a teenager, Tippi was approached on the street and asked if she wanted to model. Tippi, who had no experience or desire to model, agreed, and ultimately parleyed this into a very successful and lucrative modeling career in New York City and Los Angeles.
Eventually, a television commercial she appeared in was seen by Alfred Hitchcock, who was taken by her appearance, and tracked her down. Imagine Tippi’s surprise when she was invited to meet Alfred Hitchcock. Not only did he sign her to an exclusive contract, he cast her as the star in his next movie, The Birds.
Tippi relates both the highs and lows of her time working with Hitchcock, and the lows (which have generated some publicity since the release of the book) make for unnerving reading to say the least. On one occasion during filming, Hitchcock attempted to kiss Tippi while they were riding in the back of a car. Tippi relates the harrowing experience of filming the famous attic scene in The Birds, which caused her to have a breakdown, and required her to take a week off from shooting to recuperate.
Tippi claims that after Hitchcock cast her as the lead in his next movie, Marnie, he became more aggressive. Her is a brief portion of Tippi’s account of an episode that occurred in Hitchcock’s office:
…he suddenly grabbed me and put his hands on me. It was sexual, it was perverse, and it was ugly, and I couldn’t have been more shocked and more repulsed. The harder I fought him, the more aggressive he became.
This paints a pretty vivid picture, despite her reluctance to delve into specifics. Suffice it to say, after completing Marnie Tippi Hedren never worked for Hitchcock again. Interestingly, she still has kind things to say about him as a director and mentor.
Tippi talks about her charity work, and about her daughter (actress Melanie Griffith), but the bulk of the book is devoted to, believe it or not, lions and tigers.
Tippi and her second husband Noel Marshall, began adopting lion cubs, with the ultimate plan of making a film about people living with big cats. The film did come to fruition after many, many years, a lot of money, and a few injuries from aggressive animals. If you have not seen the movie Roar, I suggest you check it out. The camera work is amateurish, but much of the footage is jaw-dropping. There is no doubt that you are observing real people interact with real lions and tigers.
The bulk of the book deals with the big cats, and these chapters are charming indeed. It’s surreal to read about a lion cub wandering through a Sherman Oaks neighborhood, or two lions peeking over a fence at the neighbor, or coming home to find three lion cubs dragging a king size mattress out a sliding glass door! Eventually, Tippi and Noel would buy a compound, where the movie would be shot. And that compound still exists today as Shambala, a non-profit preserve for big cats. What began as a crazy idea about a film ended up becoming Tippi’s life work. Tippi presents herself as a very grounded, and grateful woman, with an interesting life story. This is definitely unlike any other Hollywood memoir I’ve ever read. Recommended.
Featuring: Toby Jones (Alfred Hitchcock), Sienna Miller (Tippi Hedren), Imelda Staunton (Alma Reville), Penelope Wilton (Peggy Robertson).
Written by Gwyneth Hughes
Most fans of Alfred Hitchcock are aware of his obsession with his leading ladies. He would cast them, mold them into his desired image, and charm them on the set and off, often engaging in playful banter. This HBO film from a few years ago suggests that in the case of at least one actress Hitchcock crossed a line; that his banter became overt harassment.
The Girl deals with the relationship between Alfred Hitchcock and Tippi Hedren, who starred in The Birds and Marnie for Hitchcock. Anyone who has read Tippi’s engaging autobiography of 2017 will recognize most of the incidents that make up the bulk of this film.
The film begins with Hitchcock reveling in the success of Psycho, and planning his next feature film. He chooses The Birds, based on a short story by Daphne du Maurier, and hires Evan Hunter to write the screenplay. Hitchcock and his wife Alma are taken with an attractive young woman in a TV commercial, and Hitchcock brings her in for an interview. This young woman is Tippi Hedren, who has years of successful modeling behind her, but zero acting experience. Hitchcock gives her a screen test, and then signs her to an exclusive contract.
The director/actress relationship begins promisingly enough; Hitchcock runs lines with Tippi, giving her acting lessons in the process. Sienna Miller is very good in the title role as Tippi Hedren; in the beginning we share her excitement and eagerness to do well. Later, as things become more difficult, we feel deeply for her. Toby Jones is a wonder as Hitchcock. He completely loses himself in the part, and plays Hitchcock with real depth, and never crosses the line into caricature. Imelda Staunton is equally good as Hitchcock’s wife and collaborator Alma Reville.
Hitchcock is portrayed as having moments of jealousy, as well as petulant outbursts. He also attempts to kiss and grope his leading lady on at least two occasions. These scenes are difficult to watch, as they should be. There is also an implication that Hitchcock exacted revenge on Tippi Hedren for refusing his advances by making the shooting of the film more challenging. It is well known that Tippi Hedren spent a week shooting the penultimate attic scene in The Birds, having live birds thrown at her over and over again. This film suggests that Hitchcock physically and emotionally traumatized her on purpose.
I’m not going to address the veracity of the movie’s claims in depth. Regarding the sexual harassment, it is a shame that Hitchcock is no longer alive to address the accusations. At the same time, I absolutely believe Tippi; she has no reason to manufacture such claims at this point in her life. Some of the other episodes in the film however, the suggestions that Hitchcock made the shooting more difficult on purpose, I find hard to swallow. Tippi herself has said that the movie over-dramatizes some elements. She says if it was really that bad all the time she would have left much sooner.
One of the most enjoyable aspects of the film for a Hitchcock fan is the recreation of several scenes from The Birds being shot by Hitchcock and Tippi Hedren. The attention to detail by director Julian Jarrold and his technical team is impressive.
Ultimately, this is the tale of a young woman whose Hollywood story had a fairy tale beginning that turned dark quickly, and her ability to overcome the obstacles in her path. It is an entertaining film, despite stretching the truth in places.
The Girl is currently available to purchase on DVD and is available to stream on HBO streaming platforms.
Featuring: Anthony Hopkins (Alfred Hitchcock), Helen Mirren (Alma Reville), Scarlett Johansson (Janet Leigh), Danny Huston (Whitfield Cook), Toni Collette (Peggy Robertson), Jessica Biel (Vera Miles), James D’Arcy (Anthony Perkins).
Screenplay by John J. McLaughlin, based on the book Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho by Stephen Rebello
Music by Danny Elfman
Cinematography by Cronenweth
The making of Psycho was a watershed event, both in the career of Alfred Hitchcock, and in the history of cinema in general. It was a very fitting subject for Stephen Rebello’s book, which covers the history of the movie in chronological sequence. When I first learned that Rebello’s book was going to be made into a film, I assumed it would be a documentary. Instead, director Sacha Gervasi brought us a period biopic, peopled with some of the biggest actors in the world.
My initial reaction to this movie when it came out was mixed at best. I was viewing it with the critical eye of a Hitchcock scholar, focusing too much on the minutiae of details that were altered or invented from whole cloth. Now that some time has passed, I thought it would be worthwhile to revisit it.
The movie begins with Alfred Hitchcock at the absolute top of his game. He is riding high on the success of his recent blockbuster North by Northwest. But he is looking to make a change. He decides on Psycho as his next movie, against the wishes of Paramount Studios, and most of his creative team. He undergoes crises both financial and emotional, and is aided by the love and support of his wife Alma, played brilliantly by Helen Mirren. The role of Hitchcock is played by the one and only Anthony Hopkins. What happens when an inimitable director is portrayed on film by an inimitable actor? Something has to give. Considering how well known both the voice and visage of Hitchcock are, director Gervasi and Hopkins found a middle ground. Prosthetic make up gives Hopkins a look that is closer to Hitch, without completely losing his own identity. It is in no way an imitation, nor was it intended to be so.
The end game of the movie is certainly no surprise; after all, Psycho was Hitchcock’s biggest commercial hit. But does this film accurately portray the making of the movie? Let’s take a look at a few of the movie’s specifics.
First of all, did the Hitchcock’s really mortgage their house to get Psycho made? Absolutely not! That was added for dramatic effect. Hitchcock was already a wealthy man at this point, and owned two houses. He did agree to completely waive his salary for points on the back end, which ended up being the smartest financial decision of his life. This movie alone earned Hitchcock upwards of $10 million. But at no point were the Hitchcock’s in any kind of dire straits. They certainly did not have to cut back on groceries, or their staff.
Did Alma Reville really come close to an affair with Whitfield Cook? The jury is out on this question. The Reville/Cook partnership actually occurred about a decade earlier than the time period of Psycho. Whitfield Cook co-wrote the screenplays of two Hitchcock films: Stage Fright (1950) and Strangers on a Train (1951). Alma was a close collaborator at the time. If one is to believe Whitfield’s diaries, he and Alma were affectionate. He describes a scene where they were close to physical intimacy, when they were interrupted by a phone call from Hitch. That moment is portrayed in the movie. At the very least, based on Whitfield’s diaries and the surviving correspondence, there was an emotional bond between the two.
Did Alma Reville really direct a scene of Psycho while Hitchcock was ill? Again, no. Hitchcock was bedridden at one point, and asked his assistant director Hilton Green to shoot the day’s scenes without him. When Hitchcock recovered and saw the dailies of Green’s footage, he realized much of it would have to be re-shot. Alma was most definitely a collaborator on all of Hitchcock’s films to some extent. She received on-screen credit on eleven films, but certainly gave input on every film. Alma had been in the movie business longer than her husband. She was a good writer, and a good film editor, and Hitch frequently sought her approval.
Was Hitchcock really cold and distant towards Vera Miles on the set? To an extent, yes. By all accounts he was always professional, but he was much more businesslike in his scenes with her than he was when directing Janet Leigh. Hitchcock apparently never got over his disappointment in Vera Miles getting pregnant after he had cast her in the lead role in Vertigo. Hitchcock enjoyed immensely his interactions with both Janet Leigh and Anthony Perkins.
Did Hitchcock really want the shower scene to be music-free? Initially, yes. He conceived of a scene that would be aurally filled with running water, stabbing sounds, and screams. It was only after he heard Bernard Herrmann’s scoring for the scene that he relented, realizing the scene would be better with the music.
Alma and Hitch’s marriage is portrayed as fairly tempestuous at this point. Is this accurate? While we can never truly know what went on behind closed doors when the Hitchcocks were home alone, by all accounts they were a truly happy couple, who were married for 53 years.
So this movie does play around quite a bit with history, but it is entertaining nonetheless, with good performances. And while the historical truth may be toyed with, perhaps there is an emotional truth to the material. This is the first movie to really give Alma Reville the recognition she deserves as half of the great Hitchcock partnership, and for that reason alone it is worth seeing.
Definitive edition: The 2012 blu ray contains a commentary track with director Sacha Gervasi and author Stephen Rebello, one deleted scene, several featurettes, and the original theatrical trailer.
SHADOW OF A DOUBT (1943) – Universal Studios – Rating: ★★★★½
B&W – 106 mins. – 1.33:1 aspect ratio
Directed by Alfred Hitchcock
Principal Cast: Teresa Wright (Charlotte “Charlie” Newton), Joseph Cotten (Charlie Oakley), MacDonald Carey (Jack Graham), Henry Travers (Joseph Newton), Patricia Collinge (Emma Newton), Hume Cronyn (Herbie Hawkins), Wallace Ford (Fred Saunders), Edna May Wonacott (Ann Newton), Charles Bates (Roger Newton).
Produced by Jack H. Skirball
Written by Thornton Wilder & Alma Reville & Sally Benson, from a story by Gordon McDonell
Director of Photography: Joseph A. Valentine
Film Editing: Milton Carruth
Original music: Dmitri Tiomkin
Charles Oakley lies on his bed in a nondescript boardinghouse. He is a picture of ennui, and everything about him suggests carelessness, from the recumbent way he smokes his cigar to the money scattered on the floor. He stirs from his lassitude when the landlady informs him that two gentlemen asked about him; he then gathers his things and leaves, giving the “gentlemen” the slip. Suddenly a man of determination, he sends a telegram to his sister and her family in Santa Rosa, California, informing them of his intention to visit.
Dissolve to Santa Rosa, a picturesque American town. Oakley’s niece, “Charlie”, is lying on her bed, in much the same state as her uncle. She is in the dumps, and wants to do something to shake up the family. Suddenly an idea occurs to her, and she rushes to the telegraph office to invite her Uncle Charlie to visit. She arrives just in time to receive the telegram from her uncle announcing his impending arrival. It’s almost as if they were reading each other’s minds, speculates Charlie.
Soon thereafter Uncle Charlie arrives, descending from the train under a plume of dark smoke that presages the arrival of something sinister in sleepy Santa Rosa. At first the family is delighted to see him, from sister Emma Newton, to brother-in-law Joseph and the three children. Uncle Charlie brings fine gifts for everyone, including an emerald ring for his favorite niece, his namesake Charlie. The ring inexplicably has in inscription, initials that Uncle Charlie insists were not put there by him. She does not care, saying that makes the ring more precious, because somebody happy had worn it before her.
Two men arrive at the Newton home who claim to be conducting a survey. They wish to ask questions of the household and take photographs. Uncle Charlie is evasive, refusing to be involved and bordering on rudeness when he encounters the two men in the home. Could these be the same “gentlemen” who were inquiring after Charlie at his boardinghouse? Soon enough niece Charlie learns from one of the men that they are police, and are indeed on the trail of her uncle, who may be involved in some pretty nasty crimes, namely the murder of several widows and the theft of their money. Charlie does not want her mother to know, for it would break her heart. She begins an investigation of her own, and soon discovers the answer to the question of her uncle’s guilt or innocence. This portion of the story involves a cat-and-mouse interplay between uncle and niece, with the rest of the family ignorant of the situation and implications. At the same time Charlie begins an awkward romance with the detective who had tipped her to her uncle’s situation.
The contest of wills between the two Charlies seems to be won by niece Charlie, and her uncle agrees to leave Santa Rosa. On the train that will take him away, he tries to silence his niece’s suspicions, with deadly consequences.
Performance: This is arguably one of the best casts in any Hitchcock film, from top to bottom. Joseph Cotten is perfect as Uncle Charlie, creating one of Hitchcock’s greatest villains. Teresa Wright as niece Charlie has the most difficult part in the movie, as her character undergoes a dramatic transformation when she learns several truths about her uncle, and the world. Henry Travers, who will forever be known to movie lovers as Clarence the angel in Frank Capra’s It’s A Wonderful Life, is pleasant and likeable as the Newton family patriarch. His primary job is to provide occasional comic relief. But the most memorable, and most moving performance in the film belongs to Patricia Collinge as Uncle Charlie’s sister Emma. Emma’s fondness for her younger brother is palpable, as is her fondness for childhood recollections. If there is one performance that is not entirely perfect it is that of MacDonald Carey as Detective Graham. He seems out-of-place in some of his onscreen interplay.
Writing: Thornton Wilder, who wrote the quintessential American idyll Our Town, was the principle screenwriter. Hitchcock charged Wilder with creating another slice of small-town American life, and introducing menace into it. And Wilder’s writing is pitch perfect. His tone ranges from the charming and occasionally comic portrait of the Newton family, to Uncle Charlie’s almost shockingly dark monologues about modern big-city life. Hitchcock was so impressed that he gave Wilder a special acknowledgment in the opening credits, in addition to his screenwriting credit.
The doppelgänger effect: The central relationship in this movie is that of the two Charlies, uncle and niece. The idea of the characters as doubles appears frequently. First as they both appear sprawled on a bed in their respective opening scenes. Later in several lines of dialogue. Teresa Wright as Charlie tells her uncle “We’re sort of like twins, don’t you see?”Later Uncle Charlie accosts his niece outside a bar called “Til Two”, finally taking her inside. There are no overt incestuous signals in this relationship, but it is a very odd relationship for an uncle and niece. She gazes at him longingly in their opening scenes together, and when she walks through town with him, arm in arm, she is delighted when her friends look at him in awe, almost as if she wants them to think he is her beau. What Uncle Charlie doesn’t foresee is that his niece has an inner mettle that has remained hidden, and it only comes to the forefront as she is forced to confront him. They are indeed very much alike, and it is this that allows her to best him in their game of wits.
The precocious girl: Women in Hitchcock movies are often the dominant partner in a relationship. They are often more intelligent and resourceful than their male counterpart. This also applies to young girls. In this film, the younger daughter Ann Newton, (played delightfully by Edna May Wonacott) is wise beyond her years. She is constantly reading and repeating things she has learned in her books. She is also the only member of the Newton family that is never taken in by Uncle Charlie. She is suspicious of him from the first moment she lays eyes on him, and although she never learns the nature of his crimes, she is not fooled. Wonacott gives the best performance by a child in the entire Hitchcock canon, in my opinion. Meanwhile the young boy Roger (played by Charles Bates) is a typical boy child, who does have one great reaction shot, played for comic effect, when Patricia Collinge says the youngest child is always spoiled.
Merry widow waltz: This waltz plays over the opening credits, along with footage of waltzing couples, which looks like stock footage but Hitchcock said he filmed specifically. The waltz features prominently in a dinner table scene, and Hitchcock uses the dancing couples footage as a transitional shot at a couple of key moments in the film. This is a very interesting expressionistic touch.
Dark humor: Hume Cronyn provides some dark humor as Herbie Hawkins, friend to Joe Newton. Hawkins and Newton read whodunits, and discuss the best way to kill each other, not realizing that they are only a few feet away from someone with practical experience! There is also perhaps a subtle indication that Herbie would like to do away with his mother, yet another charming mother/son relationship.
Emma Newton as Emma Hitchcock: Alfred Hitchcock’s mother Emma passed away during production of this film. There is much speculation that the character of Emma Newton (the name can be no coincidence) was inspired in part by the director’s own mother. Certainly Emma Newton, as played so wonderfully by Patricia Collinge, is allowed a sentimentality that is seldom if ever seen in Hitchcock films. Her emotional response to the news that her brother will be leaving is so genuine, that it almost moves the viewer to tears, particularly because of the things we know about her brother Charlie that she does not.
What Joe said: Joseph Cotten, in his 1987 autobiography Vanity Will Get You Somewhere, said of this film that “it is certainly mentioned to me as often as Citizen Kane and The Third Man.” He also complimented Thornton Wilder’s screenplay, saying “I cannot remember any shooting script that suffered so few alterations during production. All the actors agreed that the author’s words were not only easy to learn, but a pleasure to speak.”
Academy awards: Gordon McDonell received a nomination in the now defunct “Best Writing, Original Story” category.
Recurring players: Joseph Cotten would star later in Under Capricorn. Hume Cronyn would appear in Hitchcock’s next film, Lifeboat. Wallace Ford would turn up in Spellbound, as would Irving Bacon. Frances Carson appeared in Foreign Correspondentand Saboteur. Edward Fielding was also in Rebecca, Suspicionand Spellbound. Constance Purdy also appeared in Spellbound. Byron Shores was in Saboteur. And Eily Malyon, the perfect spinsterish librarian, had earlier played the perfect spinsterish hotel desk clerk in Foreign Correspondent.
Where’s Hitch? Alfred Hitchcock’s cameo appears at about 16:26. He is seen from a right rear profile as a passenger on the train. He is playing cards with a doctor and his wife, and the camera shows that his hand is the entire suit of spades!
Legacy: Universal remade this movie in 1958, as a noirish B-movie called Step Down to Terror. It was also remade for TV in 1991, with Mark Harmon in the Uncle Charlie role.
Hitchcock moment: For the most part this movie was shot in a very straightforward manner, with Hitchcock’s usual economy of shots. The shot in the library where the camera pulls back from a close-up looking over Teresa Wright’s shoulder, high up to the ceiling, is impressive. Production designer Bob Boyle said that Hitchcock wanted the camera movement to be almost like a gasp, or sudden intake of breath. There is also the shot of Teresa Wright coming downstairs with her hand on the bannister, as the camera slowly zooms in on her hand, and the emerald ring plainly visible on it.
What Hitch said: Numerous critics say that this was Hitchcock’s favorite among his own films. His daughter Patricia states it unequivocally: “It was my father’s favorite picture.” One would think she would know. When pressed on this point by Truffaut, Hitchcock answered: “I wouldn’t say that Shadow of a Doubt is my favorite picture; if I’ve given that impression, it’s probably because I feel that here is something that our friends, the plausibles and logicians, cannot complain about.” (In referring to the “plausibles” Hitchcock was talking about people who dismissed the plots of his films because they were not plausible). “But that impression is also due to my very pleasant memories of working on it with Thornton Wilder.”
Definitive edition: The best edition of this movie available for purchase today is Universal’s 2012 blu-ray release, (also available as part of the Masterpiece Collection box set). The picture quality is not quite as sharp as the blu-ray remaster of Saboteur, being a little grainy at times, but it still looks spectacular for a movie that is over 70 years old. The audio track (2-channel mono) also sounds quite good. Extra features include a 35-minute making-of documentary, which has interview footage with Hume Cronyn, Teresa Wright, Patricia Hitchcock, Robert Boyle, and Peter Bogdanovich. Also included are production drawings, production photographs, and the original theatrical trailer.